There are many types of truffles, but the most precious of them all is the black winter truffle (Tuber melanosporum). Also commonly known as the Perigord truffle, because it’s in France where, historically, truffles have been the most appreciated.
It is useful to know that there is no difference between the Spanish, French or Italian Tuber melanosporum. Most Spanish fresh truffles are sold to France, where is sold as black truffle of Périgord.
Two excellent examples of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum)
There are other types of truffles which can also be marketed, although they possess a much lesser gastronomic value than the black truffle: Summer truffle (Tuber aestivum), fall or magenca truffle (Tuber brumale) and Bourgogne truffle (Tuber uncinatum)
One should be careful and not be fooled by other types of truffles, mostly from China, which have a striking resemblance to our black truffle, but which possess little or no culinary value whatsoever. These are called Chinese truffles, Tuber indicum and Tuber himalayensis.
Among the white truffles is worth noting the White Alba Truffle (Tuber maganatum), which grows mainly in some Italian regions, and which ranks the highest market prices, due to its scarcity.